To transform a function vertically, you add a number to or subtracting a number from the entire function, or multiply by a number. To do something to a complete function, say
Now, all vertical transformations by a number somewhere on the right side of the equation outside the parentheses.
Unlike the horizontal transformations, vertical transformations work as you would expect: the addition makes the job go up, subtraction makes it go down, multiplying a number greater than 1 extends from the function, and multiplying by a number less than 1 shrinks the function. For example:
Multiplication of the function by -1 is reflected about the x-axis, or in other words, it flips upside down. All the points of the tool jumped over the x-axis and end on the other side, at the same distance from the axis. Original points that lie on the x-axis does not move.