A granular cell tumor or a neoplastic new growth that is usually found in the tongue. According to the location, it is also called Abrikossoff's granular cell tumor and myoblastoma. The terms "granular cell nerve sheath tumor," and "granular cell schwannoma" are used in connection with the fact that it is a tumor derived from neural cells - the same cells from which the nerve sheath and Schwann cells are derived. It appears granular due to the presence of secondary lysosomes into the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. In general, these tumors are rarely grow beyond 1.18 inches, and most of them are benign or malignant.
It is not known why someone develops granular cell tumor. This tumor is extremely rare, so there are no data on how many people are affected. Because medical professionals led to believe that it is slightly more common in women and middle-aged persons. Most cases of this disorder have been found in humans who are between 30 and 50 years.
While this tumor can affect any site of the body, is usually an oral pathology. 45 to 65% of granular cell tumors in the head and neck, 70% are located in the mouth, particularly in the tongue, hard palate and buccal mucosa. The larynx may also be involved in 10% of cases. Effect of the gastrointestinal tract as well. In fact, about 5% of granular cell tumors in the esophagus, stomach, intestines, bile ducts and gall bladder.
Microscopic studies have shown that this tumor has a predilection for the dermis or subcutaneous tissues; therefore often manifests as dermal growths or cutaneous conditions. Less often occurs in muscles or in the submucosa. When with the naked eye, the tumor would seem pale white or yellowish, without bleeding or necrosis. The skin or mucosa over which the tumor may appear normal. Sometimes, thickening and a cobblestone appearance can be observed.
The diagnosis is usually via biopsy. When the pathologist says that the lesion is benign, a treatment can be obtained by surgical removal of the tumor. A benign granular cell tumor, however, has a repetition rate which varies from 2 to 8%. On the other hand, if the lesion considered malignant, surgical removal is no cure, and chemotherapy and radiation treatment options are ineffective. A malignant granular cell tumor may return at a rate of 30%, and can cause death to 60% of affected individuals within three years after the initial detection.
- 70% of the granular cell tumors are found in the mouth.
- A benign granular cell tumor typically cured because the tumor surgically removed.
- A biopsy removes questionable tissue to the analyzed by a pathologist to have to search for cancer cells.